Write a structured summary showing in depth understanding and explaining what is


Write a structured summary showing in depth understanding and explaining what is research to you in : A-fundamental linguistics research and B- applied (educational) research based on understanding 2 concepts (building on what you learned from):1. how to use critical thinking to understand the value of a published article what tools are used to check whether this particular journal is a reliable one or not, what to look for in the article itself (previous studies, ex the process of peer reviewing, p value etc)to properly fact check a scientific study.By first knowing how to find the original article, who published it, its ‘impact factor, need to understand the components of a scientific paper, its 5 parts of the scientific paper (abstract, Introduction; then Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion ) critically dissecte each part of the paper-understand the p-value and its significance , statistics errors, limitations covered in the discussion part, factors of confusion. variables etc-how to avoid this? By doing a randomaized experiment (instead of analyzing existing data-observational exp- do an experiment attributing hazard intervention-the latter could be expensive and lenghthy-so they are often done on small groups despite low proof statistical level- solution? 1 study is not enough to reach a very imp conclusion with huge impact.So how to reach scientific consensus? By combining data from several studies with different protocols etc.2- and what can scientific research bring to teachers’Ramus F-Few of the questions Ramus covered:What knowledge do teachers need? What are the sources of knowledge to answer these questions? How do we know which practices work? How do we know which practices promote learning? How to use the scientific approach to evaluatepractices? Have the students progressed because of you?Alternative hypotheses and their methodological consequences:Is the result of a randomized controlled trialan absolute proof?and proof of effectiveness?Pedagogical innovation: From Concept to ReformWhy do we need “evidence-based education”? Evidence-based education in action.One of the interesting sources he used: https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/In his presentation Ramus explored different points : the role of science in education, Teacher’s knowledge , factors determining school learning before reaching 2 conclusions.CONCLUSION 1a:Teaching is not a science, but a practice that must be based on scientific knowledge:-On the functioning of students (psychology)-On pedagogical practices (educational sciences)CONCLUSION 1b:Most questions such as “how to teach effectively…” have an answer, which can be determined rigorously determined by experimental method.CONCLUSION 1cEven though:-It is very complex-There are multiple factors at play-Results may depend on country, language, culture, environment, studentsculture, environment, students…CONCLUSION 2a:There is already a very large amount of experimental studies answering many questions.It would be wrong to ignore them.CONCLUSION 2b:But they don’t have all the answers. For each question for which existing studies do not provide a clear answer, new experimental studies are neededCONCLUSION 2c:The -speaking world suffers from a glaring lack of such research. It must be encouraged.CONCLUSION 2d:Therefore, teachers should:Be familiar with the main findings of this research.-Be familiar with the experimental approach that allows them to obtain new and reliable answers.-Be involved in such research.